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  • An Open Struggle of Redefinition

    Eddy U

    Chapter from the book: U, E. 2019. Creating the Intellectual: Chinese Communism and the Rise of a Classification.


    This chapter describes major perspectives on the intellectual and the Chinese socialist revolution that appeared during the 1957 rectification campaign when Chairman Mao invited criticism of the state. Prominent scholars built upon the Confucian literati tradition, defined professional workers outside the Chinese Communist Party as intellectuals, and wanted this population to be the party’s partner in official governance. Using Marxist and other ideas, college students argued against the official account of China’s socialist development. They saw intellectuals as “legislators” who would direct the pursuit away from the party’s domination. When the party hit back, it proposed a red-and-expert ideal, or an increase in the number of usable and reliable intellectuals by deepening ideological reeducation and expanding professional training. The chapter stresses that none of the perspectives became reality. The socialist project, instead, took a dark turn afterward.

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    How to cite this chapter
    U, E. 2019. An Open Struggle of Redefinition. In: U, E, Creating the Intellectual. California: University of California Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1525/luminos.68.f

    This is an Open Access chapter distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 license (unless stated otherwise), which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Copyright is retained by the author(s).

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    Additional Information

    Published on April 30, 2019