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  • The War of 1860: Roots and Ramifications

    Jens Hanssen Hicham Safieddine

    Chapter from the book: Al-Bustani, B. 2019. The Clarion of Syria: A Patriot’s Call against the Civil War of 1860.


    This chapter outlines the socioeconomic and political conditions that underlie the civil strife of 1860. It scrutinizes the claims al-Bustani made in Nafir Suriyya and offers alternative readings beyond tribal, communal, and sectarian prejudice, including elite rivalries, class conflict, imperial reform, and foreign intervention.

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    Al-Bustani, B. 2019. The War of 1860: Roots and Ramifications. In: Al-Bustani, B, The Clarion of Syria. California: University of California Press. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1525/luminos.67.b

    This chapter distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution + Noncommercial 4.0 license. Copyright is retained by the author(s)

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    Published on April 30, 2019